Factors Influencing Becoming A Good Reader*
Oral Language is developed by language play activities, such as:
- Writing messages
- Listening to and examining books
- Developing oral vocabulary and verbal reasoning
Phonemic Awareness is the ability to understand the sounds structure in spoken words. To read, children must be able to pay attention to the sequence of sounds or phonemes in words and manipulate them before learning to read. This ability predicts reading and spelling achievement.
- Identifying and making rhymes
- Counting and working with syllables
- Segmenting initial and final phonemes
- Hearing and blending sounds
- Analyzing initial and final sounds
- Segmenting words
Alphabet Knowledge is a powerful predictor of reading success.
- Knowledge of the names of the letters
- Shapes of the letters
- Ability to write the letters
Phonics well designed and focused phonics instruction to learn:
- Letter-sound correspondence
- Connecting the 26 letters with the 44 Phonemes in the English language
Practice with Decodable Text – practice new sounds and letters using materials that directly reinforce new information and review what children already know for maximum gains in fluency and automaticity.
Exposure to Sight Words and Irregular Words – repeated exposure to sight words builds the alphabetic features in memory. High-frequency irregularly spelled words should be memorized to they can be read easily in controlled text.
Accurate and Automatic Word Recognition – fluency and comprehension depend on accurate and automatic word recognition. Systematic word recognition instruction on common, consistent letter-sound relationships and syllable patterns support successful word recognition skills.
Source: Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills, 2nd Edition, edited by Judith R. Birsch, Ed. D. Chapter 1, Table 1.1 , Sources: Adams, 1990; Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, 1998, Lyon, 1999; Toregenson, 2004